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Turkey (Türkiye) is located on the Mediterranean, in the Middle East region of Asia, with a small section in Mediterranean Europe separated by the Turkish Straits (Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara, and Dardanelles). With the the Black Sea to the north and the Aegean Sea in the west and Mediterranean Sea to the southwest, Turkey is surrounded by Bulgaria and Greece to the west, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia to the northeast, Syria, Iraq and Iran to the southeast.
Turkey's primary international gateway by air is Istanbul's Ataturk International Airport . Ankara's Esenboga Airport handles a comparatively limited selection of international flights, and there are also direct charters to Mediterranean resort hotspots like Antalya in the peak summer and winter season. In 2005 customs at Istanbul international airport were rearranged to the effect that one has to go through customs and "enter the country" there rather than first travel on to a regional destination and pass customs there. Luggage will generally travel to the final destination without further ado, but on occassion one may have to point it out to be sure it will be transported on. The information given by flight attendants in the incoming flight may not be adequate so until the procedure is changed (it is supposed to be temporary only) it is wise to inquire on Istanbul airport. Since one must pass security again for the onward inland flight it may be advisable to hurry and not spend too much time in transit.
From Istanbul International airport, you can catch the light rail, which will take you directly to the Otogar (bus station) or to numerous stops within Istanbul. It is possible to be at the Otogar within 1-2 hours after landing. The LRT (light rail) costs less than 1 YTL.
You can still travel from Europe to Turkey by train, although these days this is more of historical or perhaps even romantic interest than fast or practical. The famed Orient Express from London now travels no further than Vienna, but you can take the daily TransBalkan from Budapest (Hungary) via Bucharest (Romania), a two-night journey with a scheduled 3-hour stop in Bucharest. 1st/2nd class sleepers and couchettes are available, but the train lacks a restaurant car so stock up on supplies. From/to Greek stations there are two daily services, from Istanbul to Pythion every morning and from Istanbul to Thessaloniki every night. There are also daily trains to Istanbul from Sofia (Bulgaria).
There are also once-weekly services from Istanbul to Aleppo and Damascus in Syria, Tabriz and Tehran in Iran.
From Central Europe getting to Turkey is not too difficult. In any case you'll need your International Insurance Card (Green Card). Pay attention to "TR" not being cancelled and be sure your insurance is valid for the Asian part of Turkey, too. Otherwise you will have to buy a Turkish car insurance.
From Bucharest there is a daily bus to Istanbul at 16.00 for 125 Lei. There is also a daily bus from Sofia, and from there you can get connectons to the major cities of Europe. Another possibility is the bus from Athens in Greece via Thessaloniki. You may also find smaller bus companies offering connections to other countries in the Balkans.
There is a direct bus to Istanbul from Teheran in Iran which takes approx 48hrs.
From Aleppo in Syria a 3hr bus to Antakya costs S£150 - 250. From Antakya you can get connecting buses to almost anywhere in Turkey.
Many people arrive in Bodrum on one of the hydro-foils or ferries that run from most of the close Greek islands into the port. A fairly pretty way to arrive. While many of the lines that originate and terminate in Istanbul have recently been discontinued (due to bankruptcy), there are still summer departures direct to Eastern Italy.
Information provided by Wikipedia
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