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Mexico

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The United Mexican States (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos (help·info)), generally known as Mexico (Spanish: México (help·info)) is a country located in North America, bordered at the north by the United States, and at the south by Guatemala and Belize, in Central America. It is the northernmost and westernmost country in Latin America, and also the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world.

The site of advanced Mesoamerican or Amerindian civilizations, the land that currently makes up Mexico existed under Spanish rule for three centuries before achieving independence early in the 19th century. The first century of independence was tumultuous, culminating in the decade-long Mexican Revolution, followed by roughly seventy years of rule by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI).

A devaluation of the peso in late 1994 threw Mexico into economic turmoil, triggering the worst recession in over half a century. The nation continues to make an impressive recovery. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, underemployment for a large segment of the population, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely Amerindian population in the impoverished southern states. Elections held in July 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that the opposition defeated the (PRI) and Vicente Fox of the National Action Party (PAN) was sworn in as President on 1 December 2000.

Mexico is a powerful and influential neighbor of the United States, in terms of trade, culture, diplomacy, with a history of emigration of Mexicans into the U.S. since the early 1900's.

Geography of Mexico

The United Mexican States or Mexico borders the United States to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the west and southwest, the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico to the east, and Belize and Guatemala to the southeast.

Mexico is the most populous spanish-speaking nation in the world. With the southwestern United States (specifically, California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas), Mexico sits at the top of the cultural region called "Latin America".

Mexico is geographically considered to be in North America. Almost all of the Mexican territory is in the North American Plate, with the exception of some parts of the Baja California Peninsula which are in the Pacific Plate and the Cocos Plate. Physically some geographers include the portion east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec within the Central American region (5 states, representing 12.11% of the total country area).

As well as numerous neighbouring islands, Mexican territory includes the more remote Isla Guadalupe and the Islas Revillagigedo in the Pacific Ocean. Mexico's total area covers 1,972,550 square kilometers, including approximately 6,000 square kilometers of islands in the Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of California (see fig. 3). On its north, Mexico shares a 5000-kilometer border with the United States. The meandering Río Bravo del Norte (known as the Rio Grande in the United States) defines the border from Ciudad Juárez east to the Gulf of Mexico. A series of natural and artificial markers delineate the United States-Mexican border west from Ciudad Juárez to the Pacific Ocean. On its south, Mexico shares an 871 kilometer border with Guatemala and a 251-kilometer border with Belize.

Mexico has a 10,143 kilometer coastline, of which 7,338 kilometers face the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California, and the remaining 2,805 kilometers front the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Mexico's exclusive economic zone (EEZ), which extends 200 nautical miles (370 km) off each coast, covers approximately 2.7 billion square kilometers. The landmass of Mexico dramatically narrows as it moves in a southeasterly direction from the United States border and then abruptly curves northward before ending in the 500-kilometer-long Yucatán Peninsula. Indeed, the capital of Yucatán State, Mérida, is farther north than Mexico City or Guadalajara.

Information provided by Wikipedia

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